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旅游英语:土耳其 Turkey

2005-11-17 16:47:11 来源:未知
 

Agri Ishak Pasha Palace

Though named as a "palace," the Ishak Pasha palace is more a kulliye. The palace is the most famous building after the Topkapi palace built in the 18th Century, during the Lale period, in the classical style. The building is located on the slopes of a hill 5 km. From the Dogubeyazit town. Besides displaying one of the finest examples of the Ottoman architecture, the palace is also known for its diverse history. According to the inscription on the Takkapi gate in the Harem quarter, the palace is built in 1199 Hicri (the Moslem calendar), or 1784 A.D. The building hovers on firm, stony ground because of its location on a slope. Although the palace is located within the centre of the Dogu Beyazit region, three sides of the building (the northern, western, and southern sides) are surrounded by steep rocks. The only access to the palace is through a slightly flat pass. The main gate, the Cumle gate, of the palace is erected against this pass. Since the palace is erected at a time when the castles lost their geographical advantage and when firearms began to be used instead of the sword, the palace's eastern wing defense is weak. The Cumle gate is made of traditionally carved and sculptured stone. Not many palaces built in the classical Turkish architectural style are left today. The Ishak Pasa Palace is one of them.

The Carain Cave

The cave is located 27 km. From Antalya at the Katran Mountains. The cave is a natural formation and was inhabited during the prehistoric ages (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, chalcolithic). The cave yielded skeletons and objects, like dressed stone tools and weapons, processed flintstones, that shed light on life in the prehistoric ages.

The Bust of Alexander the Great

The bust of Alexander the Great was discovered during the excavation of Pergamum. The bust found in Pergamum is part of a copy of the original statue of Alexander, a work by Lysippos, the personal sculptor of Alexander the Great. The bust dates from the 3rd Century B.C. The original Lysippos statue of Alexander has never been found, instead, there are several copies of the statue made in Greek and Roman periods. The Pergamum bust, the only piece remaining from the statue, is on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris.

The Relief on Ivriz Hill

 The relief can be found at the spring of the Ivriz stream, 12 km. From Eregli - Konya. The 6.08 metres high relief was a religious sanctuary which dates back to the Late Hittite period in the 8th Century B.C. and depicts king Warpalavas giving offerings to Santaj, the Hittite god of fertility. For more information about the Hittites please refer to the Yazilikaya section of this site.

Anadoluhisari Fortress

 Anadoluhisari on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus is the oldest Turkish building in Istanbul. It was constructed by the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I Yildirim in 1395, and later enlarged by Mehmet II (1451-1481) who built the outer walls. At the centre is a 25 m high square tower of four storeys, surrounded by a 20 m high wall 1.5 m thick in the form of an irregular pentagon. The 2 m thick outer wall measures 80 m from north to south and 65 m from east to west. As well as accommodation for the garrison the fortress contained its own mosque.

Van Castle

The Urartians constructed dozens of castles in this mountainous region of eastern Turkey, such as Toprakkale, Kalecik, Cavustepe, Edremit, Asagi Anfaz, Yukari Anfaz, Zengibar, Muradiye, Kecikiran, Hosap, Agarti, Delicay and Zernakitepe. The most important of all is undoubtedly Van Castle, which was built in the year 834 BC by King Sardur I of Urartu. The northern side rests against steep slopes and to the south are rocky cliffs. The castle measures 1800 m long by 1200 m wide, and within its walls are many royal tombs and inscriptions. Four walls surround the castle, two of Urartian construction, and two built nearly two thousand years later by the Akkoyunlu and Ottomans. In front of the north walls is an open air temple carved into the rock, and within the walls are a mosque, medrese, barracks and cisterns.

Sultan Han (Alaeddin Kervansarai)

The kervansarai is located in the town of Sultanhani, 40 km. From Aksaray. The han is one of the best examples of Selcuq architecture. As the greatest han built during the Selcuq period, it was construv-cted by Alaeddin Keykubat I. In 1229. The han was renovated and expanded to a greater size in 1278 after a fire broke out. The architecture of the han is Muhammed bin Havlan el-Dimiski. The han is built on a plan of 50x110 m., and consists of a winter and a summer residence. The most significant part of the han are the reliefs on the Main Gate.

Grand Bazaar

Throughout the Byzantine period, the grand bazaar was a hectic open air centre for trade. Mehmet II. Continued this tradition but added two covered bedesten (the older version of the modern shopping malls today). The bazaar extended to an even greater scale by Suleyman I. (1520-1566). The last additions of bedesten shops in the bazaar were made in 1701.

Misir Carsisi (Egyptian Bazaar)

The Egyptian Bazaar (Misir Carsisi) It is the second covered bazaar of Istan- bul. Was built during the era of Mehmet IV, in compliance with the request of Queen Mother Hatice Turhan. Built in 1660 by the architect Kasim Aga as part of the Yeni Camii Mosque Complex, the bazaar lies today next to the mosque. The bazaar has an 'L' shape with six gates and 86 shops operating in the bazaar today.

Kizkalesi

The Castle of Korykos on shore faces another fort, Kizkalesi (Maiden's Castle), that stands on a tiny island 200 meters offshore. Formerly a sea wall joined the two fortresses. The Maiden's Castle is located 60 km. From Mersin, near the Erdemli town. It is assumed that the castle originally had a road connecting the castle to the mainland. The road eroded with time and the the castle remains separated from the mainland. The Maiden's Castle, together with the Castle of Korykos, were built in the IV. Century B.C. by the Greek settlers to prevent assaults to the city of Korykos from the sea. The city of Korykos remained an important harbour in Southeastern Meditteranean until the XIII. Century A.D. The castle passed into Turkish hands when it was conquered by Ibrahim Bey of the Karamanoglu Principality in 1448 and was extensively renovated. The castle has a circumference of 900 m and eight towers.

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