|Atlanta, the largest city and capital of Georgia, is the seat of Fulton County. It is situated in the northwest part of the state at the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains near the Chattahoochee River. The first European settler was Hardy Ivy, who built a cabin there in 1833.
Founded as Terminus in 1837, the town served as the end of the Georgia railroad line (Western and Atlantic Railroad) and later became incorporated as Marthasville in 1843 in honor of ex-governor Lumpkin’s daughter Martha. It was renamed Atlanta in 1845 and incorporated as a city in 1847. The name was suggested by the railroad’s chief engineer, J. Edgar Thomson, and was derived from its location at the end of the Georgia and Atlantic railroad line. The city became the capital of Georgia in 1868.
During the Civil War, the city was burned and almost completely destroyed while occupied by Gen. William T. Sherman’s troops in Nov. 1864. It was rebuilt after the war and grew rapidly due to the expansion of the railroads in the southwest.
Today, Atlanta is the major commercial and transportation hub of the southeast United States, and its international airport is one of the busiest in the world. The city’s economy is led by the service, communications, retail trade, manufacturing, finance, and insurance industries. The convention business is also important, and Atlanta is home to many major corporations, including Coca-Cola, which was founded there in 1892.
Atlanta is also a major educational center, with many prestigious universities and colleges, including Emory University (1836), Georgia Institute of Technology (1885), and Georgia State University (1913). Morehouse College (1867), Spelman College (1881), and Clark Atlanta University (1865; 1869) are important historically black colleges.
Major attractions include Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site, Grant Park, and the Carter Presidential Center. The 1996 Summer Olympics were held in Atlanta.
亚特兰大(Atlanta)是东南部最大城市，佐治亚州首府。位于该州北部蓝岭东南的山麓台地上，海拔302米。市区面积339平方公里，人口39．4万 (1990)，其中黑人占1／3以上。大市区包括富尔顿等15个县，面 积11204平方公里。始建于1837年，因地处美国东南部通往西部 的铁路起迄点而兴起。1847年设市，为一地区性的交通和商业中 心。南北战争期间毁于战火。战后重建。1868年成为州府。第二次世界大战后，随着美国南方经济的发展而成为新兴的现代化 城市。现为美国东南部商业、运输业和工业中心。有1500多家工厂企业。传统的棉纺织和食品工业仍占重要地位。前者就近从 棉花带取得原料，职工人数居各工业部门之首；后者以可口可乐饮 料名闻世界，是可口可乐公司总部所在地。飞机制造业发展很快， 已成为全市最发达的工业部门，洛克希德飞机公司总部设于该市。 其他尚有钢铁、汽车装配、化学和木材加工等工业。
主要工业区位于南部和西北部。商业和金融业发达，市内多批发、零售商号，有 10家外国贸易机构，大市区拥有74家银行。重要运输枢纽，7条 铁路线汇集，6条州级公路穿过市区，环城公路长100公里。市南 有哈茨菲尔德国际机场。城市布局工整有序。市中心在桃树广场 附近，商业区由此向北延伸，多高层建筑、商店、银行、保险公司、办 公大楼和文化娱乐场所。著名的桃树广场旅馆高73层，为全市最 高建筑物。广场东南面是州议会大厦、市政厅等。为美国主要会议中心之一，拥有国内规模最大的会议设施。有佐治亚理工学院、亚特兰大大学等28所高等学府以及图书馆、博物馆、艺术中心等文化设施。1996年第26届世界奥运会在此举行。气候温暖，环境优美，每年春天盛开白色的山茱萸花，故有"山茱萸城"之称。